Glossary
additive color 

Images with color elements derived from the light source itself. RGB is a common form of additive color. See also RGB.

adjustment 

Any change to the appearance of an image. See also brushed adjustment.

adjustment preset 

A set of saved adjustment parameter settings. You can create new adjustment presets and rename, rearrange the order of, and delete existing adjustment presets. Adjustment presets appear in the Presets pop-up menu in the Adjustments inspector and the Adjustments pane of the Inspector HUD, and you can also access them by choosing Photos > Add Adjustment Preset. See also adjustment.

Adobe RGB (1998) 

A color profile commonly used for printing. See also color space.

album 

A type of container in the Aperture library that holds only versions. You can create albums at either the project level or within a project. There are specialized types of albums, including book, Light Table, webpage, web journal, and slideshow albums. See also folder, library, project, Smart Album, version.

alternate 

The image immediately next to the pick in a stack. Alternate images are useful when more than one image in a stack merits the pick position. See also image, pick, stack.

Alternate setting 

A secondary Viewer setting that presents the currently selected image on the secondary Viewer display. See also display, image, main Viewer, primary selection, secondary Viewer.

ambient light 

The lighting characteristics that already exist in the scene (indoor or outdoor) without any additional light supplied by the photographer.

analog-to-digital conversion 

The process of transforming light energy voltage values captured by the camera’s digital image sensor into binary (digital numbers) for processing and storage. See also digitization, quantization.

angle of view 

The area of the scene displayed within the frame. Determined by the focal length of the lens.

aperture 

An adjustable iris or diaphragm in the lens through which light passes. Measured in f-stops. See also f-stop.

aperture priority 

A setting on certain cameras that automatically sets the shutter speed for a correct exposure based on the aperture setting provided by the photographer. See also exposure, shutter priority.

archive 

The process of storing image data on a permanent medium, such as optical media (CD or DVD).

aspect ratio 

The ratio of height to width of the dimensions of a photograph. Common North American aspect ratios are 3.5 x 5, 4 x 6, 5 x 7, 11 x 14, and 16 x 20 inches.

audio attachment 

An audio file that has been attached to an image, either in the camera that captured the image or within Aperture. Audio attachments are often audio notations recorded by the photographer while shooting an image.

audio clip 

An instance of a segment of audio in Aperture; an audio file’s version. See also audio file, version.

audio file 

The source media file on disk to which an audio clip in Aperture refers; the audio clip’s master. See also audio clip, master.

autofocus 

The system within the camera that automatically focuses the lens on a specific portion of the subject or scene. See also autofocus point overlays.

autofocus point overlays 

Overlays displayed over images in the Viewer that show which autofocus mode was used by the camera and which focal point was used to focus the image when it was captured. You turn on autofocus point overlays by clicking the Autofocus Points button in the Camera Info pane of the Metadata inspector. You can also temporarily view autofocus point overlays by placing the pointer over the Autofocus Points button. See also autofocus.

automatic bracketing 

A setting on many professional cameras that automatically brackets the exposure of the image. See also bracketing.

background 

The area in the rear of the image that appears behind the subject. See also depth of field, foreground.

backlighting 

A light source that faces toward the lens of the camera, emanating from behind the subject. Backlighting makes the outline of the subject stand out from the background, often resulting in a silhouette. See also frontlighting, sidelighting, silhouette.

badge overlay 

A small icon Aperture places on an image to indicate that an adjustment, keyword, or other change has been applied to it. See also adjustment, keywords, offline.

Bayer pattern color filter array 

A specific arrangement of red, green, and blue lenses attached to the surface of a digital image sensor. There are roughly twice as many green lenses as blue and red to accommodate how the human eye perceives color. See also charge-coupled device (CCD), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), digital image sensor.

bit depth 

The number of tonal values or shades of a color each channel in a pixel is capable of displaying. Increasing the bit depth of color channels in an image’s pixels exponentially increases the number of colors each pixel can express. See also color channels, color depth.

Black & White adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that allows you to selectively control the source red, green, and blue color channels when a color image is converted to grayscale. See also adjustment, grayscale, image, monochrome.

black point compensation 

Black point compensation ensures that black and white luminance values are appropriately scaled to fit within the range or gamut of the destination device (printer, paper, and ink). Using black point compensation helps prevent clipping in shadows because the blacks are scaled to fit within the gamut of the printer, paper, and ink.

Black Point parameter 

An Exposure adjustment parameter in Aperture used to set the blacks in the image. See also Exposure adjustment.

Black setting 

A secondary Viewer setting that sets the secondary Viewer display to be a blank screen. See also display, secondary Viewer.

Blur Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that softens the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Quick Brushes.

bounce lighting 

Natural and unnatural light sources (flash and tungsten) redirected toward the subject using a reflective surface to give the effect of natural light as well as fill-in shadows. See also color temperature, fill-in lighting, White Balance adjustment.

bracketing 

The process of taking three shots of the same image based on the aperture and shutter values recommended by the light meter: a shot one stop under the recommended exposure, a shot at the recommended exposure, and a shot one stop over the recommended exposure. You can also narrow the bracketing range to fractions of a stop. Bracketing is used in difficult lighting situations to ensure the scene is captured with the correct exposure. See also automatic bracketing.

Brightness parameter 

An Exposure adjustment parameter in Aperture used to lighten or darken an image. The adjustment affects the brightness values of the image’s midtones the most. See also adjustment, Exposure adjustment, midtones.

Browser 

The part of the Aperture interface that displays the contents of the library, projects, or albums. The Browser displays images as a row of thumbnails (filmstrip view), a grid of thumbnails (grid view), or by file information (list view). See also filmstrip view, grid view, list view, Viewer.

Browser layout 

A main window layout in Aperture in which the Viewer is hidden. See also Browser, Full Screen view, Split View layout, Viewer, Viewer layout.

Browser mode (Full Screen view) 

A view mode in Full Screen view, similar to the Browser in the Aperture main window. When Full Screen view is set to Browser mode, images are presented as thumbnails against a black background. Aperture provides controls for searching for and sorting the thumbnails in this mode. See also Browser, Full Screen view, Library Path Navigator pop-up menus, Projects mode (Full Screen view), Viewer mode (Full Screen view).

brushed adjustment 

A type of adjustment in Aperture that is brushed on the image rather than applied to it all at once. Most adjustments can be brushed on an image. See also adjustment, brushed adjustment overlay, Quick Brushes.

brushed adjustment overlay 

A masking tool in Aperture used to identify brush strokes that have already been applied to an image. See also Brush HUD, Quick Brushes.

Brush HUD 

A floating window used to set the size of the brush, the softness of the brush’s edges, and the strength of the brush stroke for the selected adjustment. The Brush HUD also contains controls for deleting brush strokes, working with overlays, limiting the adjustment to specific tonal ranges, and edge detection. See also Detect Edges, brushed adjustment overlay, Quick Brushes.

Bulb (B) 

A manual shutter speed setting on many cameras used for timed exposures. When the shutter is set to B, the shutter stays open until the photographer presses the shutter release button. See also shutter, shutter speed.

Burn Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that darkens the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Dodge Quick Brush, Quick Brushes.

calibration 

The process of creating an accurate color profile for a device. Calibrating a device ensures accurate color translation from device to device. See also device characterization.

camera 

A photographic device usually consisting of a lightproof box with a lens at one end and either light-sensitive film or a digital image sensor at the other. See also digital point-and-shoot camera, digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera.

camera shake 

Blurring of the image caused by the combination of a slow shutter speed, a small aperture, and a long focal length. See also aperture, shutter speed, tripod, unipod.

candid shot 

Refers to a photograph of a person that appears to have been taken informally and unposed, without the subject’s knowledge. See also composition.

capture 

a. The process of taking the image received by the digital image sensor and camera processor and storing that information on the memory card in the camera. b. The process of recording an image in Aperture at the moment it is shot via a tethered camera. See also camera, digital image sensor, memory card, tethered shooting.

center-weighted metering 

A type of metering that measures the light in the entire viewfinder but gives extra emphasis to the center of the frame. Center-weighted metering is the most common type of metering in consumer cameras. See also evaluative metering, light meter, spot metering.

charge-coupled device (CCD) 

A type of digital image sensor that records the pixel information row by row. See also complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), digital image sensor.

Chromatic Aberration adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that corrects chromatic aberration, produced by certain lenses when the image was shot. Some lenses refract light at specific focal lengths, resulting in a rainbow effect in the image. See also adjustment, light.

chromatic spread 

The extent of colors affected by the Hue, Saturation, and Luminance parameters in the Color adjustment. See also adjustment, Color adjustment.

Clone brush 

A type of Retouch brush in Aperture used to correct and obscure imperfections in an image by copying pixels from a similar-looking area of an image and pasting them over the area with the pixels you want to replace. See also Repair brush, retouching, Retouch adjustment.

close-up 

An image in which the subject usually appears within 3 feet of the camera. For example, head shots are often referred to as close-ups. A shot of an ant on a flower’s petal, where the ant fills a majority of the frame, is also a close-up.

CMYK 

A working space used for print pieces combining cyan, magenta, and yellow inks in different combinations to create a color that reflects the proper color of light. Black ink (K) is added to the image last to generate pure black on the page. See also subtractive color, working space.

codec 

Short for compressor/decompressor or encode/decode. A software component used to translate video or audio from its analog uncompressed form to the digital compressed form in which it is stored on a computer’s hard disk. Also referred to as a compressor.

Color adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture used to adjust hue, saturation, and luminance on a color-by-color basis, as well as chromatic range. See also adjustment, chromatic spread, hue, luminance, saturation.

color cast 

An unnatural tint in an image due to a lack of color balance. Color casts are often caused by artificial light sources such as interior lighting. Color casts in images are commonly removed by adjusting levels, tint, or white balance. See also White Balance adjustment.

color channels 

The individual channels into which color information for digital images is divided. Each individual color channel represents one of the three individual primary colors that combine to represent the final image. Each channel has a bit depth; most digital image files have 8 bits per channel, meaning that there are 256 levels of color for each channel. See also bit depth, color depth.

color depth 

The possible range of colors that can be used in an image. There are generally three choices with digital images: grayscale, 8-bit, and 16-bit. Higher color depths provide a wider range of colors but require more storage space. See also bit depth, color channels, grayscale.

colorimeter 

An instrument capable of measuring the color value of a sample, using color filters. A colorimeter is used to determine if two colors are the same. However, it does not take into account the light under which a sample is measured. Colorimeters are often used to calibrate displays and printers. See also calibration.

colorimetry 

The science of measuring color both objectively and perceptively.

color interpolation 

The process of calculating additional color values from light captured via the red, green, and blue elements on the digital image sensor.

color label 

A type of metadata that can be assigned in Aperture to help organize and filter images. You can assign one of five color labels to an image, as well as assign a specific meaning to each type of color label. See also metadata.

color management system (CMS) 

An application that controls and interprets the reproduction of color between devices and imaging software for accuracy. See also ColorSync.

color matching method (CMM) 

A software algorithm designed to translate color information from one device profile to another, such as from your display to your printer. ColorSync is a thoroughly integrated CMM used by Mac OS X. See also ColorSync.

Color Monochrome adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that desaturates the image and applies a color tint of your choosing to the midtones. See also adjustment, desaturate, image, midtones, monochrome, Tint adjustment.

color space 

A mathematical model used to describe part of the visible spectrum. Color from one device is mapped from the device-dependent value to a device-independent value in a color space. Once in an independent space, the color can be mapped to another device-dependent space. See also device dependent, device independent.

ColorSync 

A color management system that is part of the Mac operating system. In Mac OS X, ColorSync is thoroughly integrated with the entire operating system and is available to all native Mac OS X applications. See also color management system (CMS), color matching method (CMM), ColorSync Utility.

ColorSync Utility 

A centralized application for setting preferences, viewing installed profiles, assigning profiles to devices, and repairing profiles that do not conform to the current ICC specification. See also ColorSync, International Color Consortium (ICC), profile.

color temperature 

Describes the color quality of light. Color temperature is measured in units called kelvins (K). See also kelvin (K), White Balance adjustment.

Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE) 

An organization established in 1931 to create standards for a series of color spaces representing the visible spectrum of light. See also color space, device dependent, device independent, lab plot.

compare image 

In Aperture, an image set to remain onscreen while other images are viewed against it. The compare image is indicated by a green border. See also image.

complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) 

A type of digital image sensor that is capable of recording the entire image provided by the light-sensitive elements in parallel (essentially all at once), resulting in a higher rate of data transfer to the storage device. Tiny colored microlenses are fitted on each light-sensitive element in a CMOS sensor to increase its ability to interpret light. See also charge-coupled device (CCD), digital image sensor.

compositing 

A process in which two or more digital images are combined into one. See also effects.

composition 

The arrangement of visual elements in a scene.

compression 

The process by which digital image files are reduced in size. Lossy compression is the process of reducing digital image file sizes through the removal of redundant or less important image data. Lossless compression reduces file sizes by mathematically consolidating redundant image data without discarding it. See also decompression, LZW compression.

cones 

A type of receptor in the eye capable of perceiving color. There are three types of cone cells, each sensitive to a particular frequency range in the visible spectrum. Cone cells are capable of seeing either red, green, or blue colors. See also rods.

contact sheet 

Based on a print preset in Aperture, a printed selection of thumbnail-sized images with or without associated metadata. Contact sheets in Aperture are similar in appearance to contact prints made by exposing negatives or transparencies against photographic paper.

contrast 

The difference between the brightness and color values in an image that allows the viewer to distinguish between objects in an image. High-contrast images have a large range of values, from the darkest shadow to the lightest highlight. Low-contrast images have a more narrow range of values, resulting in a “flatter” look. See also Contrast parameter, Curves adjustment, density, flat.

Contrast parameter 

An Enhance adjustment parameter in Aperture used to adjust the contrast in an image. See also adjustment, contrast, Exposure adjustment.

Contrast Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that applies additional contrast to the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, contrast, Quick Brushes.

control bar 

The control bar contains buttons and controls you can use to rate and navigate through images, as well as apply keywords to them. See also keywords, rating.

copyright 

The legal right to exclusive publication, production, sale, or distribution of a literary, musical, or artistic work. Typically, these rights are in effect for a specific period of time.

crop 

The process of printing or distributing only part of the original image. The general purpose of cropping an image is to create a more effective composition. Another reason for cropping an image is to make it fit a particular aspect ratio, such as 4 x 6. See also adjustment, aspect ratio, composition, Crop adjustment, effects.

Crop adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that trims the image for the purpose of changing the composition or modifying the aspect ratio. The Crop adjustment is used in conjunction with the Crop tool. See also adjustment, aspect ratio, composition, crop.

Curves adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that selectively remaps the tonal range of the image by applying a curve from input to output. Manipulating the curve modifies the tonal values in the image. See also adjustment, contrast.

decompression 

The process of creating a viewable image from a compressed digital image file. See also compression.

definition 

The clarity of details in an image. See also resolution.

Definition parameter 

An Enhance adjustment parameter in Aperture used to adjust the clarity of details in an image. See also Enhance adjustment.

Definition Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that adds clarity and reduces haze without adding too much contrast to the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, definition, Quick Brushes.

demote 

In Aperture, the process of moving an image in a stack away from the pick position. See also Full Screen view toolbar, image, pick, promote, stack.

densitometer 

An instrument designed to measure the optical density of photographs. See also device characterization.

density 

The ability of an image to reproduce distinct dark colors. An image with high definition in the darker colors is referred to as dense. See also contrast, flat.

depth of field 

The area of the image that appears in focus from the foreground to the background. Depth of field is determined by a combination of the opening of the aperture and the focal length of the lens. See also aperture, background, focal length, foreground.

desaturate 

To remove color from an image. Complete desaturation results in a grayscale image. See also Black & White adjustment, grayscale, saturation.

destination profile 

The working-space profile that defines the results of a color conversion from a source profile. See also profile.

Detect Edges 

A Brush HUD setting in Aperture that examines differences in pixel values to determine possible hard edges and then restricts the brush from affecting pixels beyond those edges, making it easier to paint adjustments into specific areas of the photo. See also Brush HUD.

device characterization 

The process of creating a unique, custom profile for a device such as a display or printer. Characterizing a device involves specialized dedicated hardware and software to determine the exact gamut of the device. See also calibration, gamut.

device dependent 

Describes color values that are contingent upon the ability of a device to reproduce those colors. For example, some colors produced by displays cannot be reproduced on paper by a printer. The colors produced by the display are outside the gamut of the printer. Therefore, those colors are considered to be device dependent. See also gamut.

device independent 

Describes standard color spaces, such as CIE Lab and XYZ, where the interpretation of a color is not dependent on a specific device. See also color space, Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage (CIE).

Devignette adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture used to correct unwanted vignetting applied to the image at the time it was captured. See also Vignette adjustment, vignetting.

diffused lighting 

A type of light that is scattered across the subject or scene. Diffused lighting results in an image with low contrast and detail, as seen in images captured outdoors on an overcast day. See also contrast, flat.

digital 

A description of data that is stored or transmitted as a sequence of ones and zeros. Most commonly, refers to binary data represented using electronic or electromagnetic signals. JPEG, PNG, RAW, and TIFF files are all digital. See also digitization.

digital image sensor 

The computer chip located at the image plane inside the camera that consists of millions of individual light-sensitive elements capable of capturing light. See also camera, charge-coupled device (CCD), complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), megapixel.

digital master file 

See master.

digital noise 

Misinterpreted pixels occurring as the result of high ISO settings; also known as chrominance signal-to-noise ratio. Random bright pixels, especially in solid colors, are the result of digital noise. See also ISO speed, noise reduction.

digital point-and-shoot camera 

A lightweight digital camera with a built-in autofocus feature, aptly named for the two steps required of the photographer to capture an image. The lens, aperture, and shutter are one assembly that is usually irremovable from the camera. See also camera, digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera.

digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera 

An interchangeable-lens camera where the image created by the lens is transmitted via a reflexing mirror through a prism to the viewfinder, and the viewfinder image corresponds to the actual image area. The mirror reflexes, or moves up, so as not to block the digital image sensor when the shutter is open. See also camera, digital point-and-shoot camera.

digitization 

The process of converting an analog voltage value to a digital value.

digitize 

A term often used by photographers for converting images captured on film to a digital format, such as TIFF, using a film scanner.

disclosure triangle 

A small triangle you click to show or hide details in the Aperture interface.

display 

The computer’s monitor.

distort 

Performing an adjustment that changes the shape or composition of an image. See also effects.

DNG 

A royalty-free RAW image format designed by Adobe Systems Incorporated. See also format, RAW.

Dodge Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that lightens the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Burn Quick Brush, Quick Brushes.

dot gain 

A printing term used to describe the enlargement of halftone dots as ink is absorbed into paper. Dot gain can affect the quality of an image’s appearance by reducing the amount of white reflected off the paper.

dots per inch (dpi) 

A printer resolution measurement that refers to the maximum number of dots within a square inch. See also print, resolution.

drift 

Changes in the way a device reproduces color over time. For example, the age of inks and the type of paper can cause a printer’s color output to drift. See also device characterization, gamut.

drop shadow 

An effect that creates an artificial shadow behind an image. Typically used on websites and in photo albums to create the illusion of three dimensions.

Duplicate Version command 

A command in the Photos menu that duplicates the selected image version with all applied metadata and adjustments. See also adjustment, image, metadata, version.

dust and scratch removal 

The process of digitally removing the blemishes caused by dust and scratches on film scans. See also Retouch adjustment.

dye sublimation 

A type of printer that creates images by heating colored ribbon to a gaseous state, bonding the ink to the paper. See also inkjet printer, photo printer, print, RA-4.

Edge Sharpen adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that sharpens the image based on luminance using multiple sharpening passes. See also adjustment, image, Sharpen adjustment.

editing 

The process of arranging and eliminating images. See also photo edit.

effects 

A general term used to describe the introduction of unnatural visual elements to enhance an image. See also compositing, filters.

electromagnetic radiation 

A type of energy ranging from gamma rays to radio waves that also includes visible light. See also light.

embedded profile 

The source profile saved in the digital image file. JPEG, TIFF, PNG, and PDF file formats support embedded profiles. See also device characterization, profile.

emulsion 

The tiny layers of gelatin, consisting of light-sensitive elements, found in film. When the emulsion is exposed to light, a chemical reaction occurs. After the film is developed, an image appears. See also dust and scratch removal, film.

Enhance adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that adjusts contrast, definition, saturation, and vibrancy, as well as black, gray, and white tints in an image. See also adjustment, contrast, Contrast parameter, definition, Definition parameter, saturation, Saturation parameter, tint, Tint adjustment, Vibrancy parameter.

evaluative metering 

A type of metering that operates by dividing the frame into several small segments, taking a reading from each individual segment, and processing the average of the total segments to recommend the best exposure value for the overall image. See also center-weighted metering, light meter, spot metering.

EXIF 

Short for Exchangeable Image File. The standard format for storing information—such as shutter speed, aperture, white balance, exposure compensation, metering setting, ISO setting, date, and time—about how an image was shot. See also IPTC, metadata.

export 

The process of formatting data in such a way that it can be understood by other applications. In Aperture, images can be exported in their native RAW format, as well as in JPEG, TIFF, PNG, and PSD formats. The EXIF and IPTC metadata associated with an image can be exported as well.

exposure 

The amount of light in an image. Exposure is controlled by limiting the intensity of light (controlled by the aperture) and the length of time light comes into contact with the digital image sensor (controlled by the shutter). Exposure affects the overall brightness of the image as well as its perceived contrast. See also adjustment, aperture, contrast, digital image sensor, Exposure adjustment, shutter.

Exposure adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that adjusts exposure, recovery, black point, and brightness. See also adjustment, Black Point parameter, Brightness parameter, exposure, Recovery parameter.

exposure meter 

See light meter.

extended desktop mode 

A setting in System Preferences that allows the Mac OS X desktop to span multiple displays. See also display, mirroring.

external editor 

An application used in tandem with Aperture to perform advanced adjustments, such as compositing. Aperture creates a new master when an image is sent to an external editor and automatically retrieves the master when the image is saved. See also compositing, master.

external flash 

A type of flash connected to the camera via the hot-shoe bracket or PC terminal. Using an external flash is the best technique for avoiding the red-eye effect in your subject’s eyes. See also flash, red-eye.

face detection 

The process Aperture employs of examining an image to determine if a face appears in it. See also Faces view.

face recognition 

The process Aperture employs of using the face of a person who has been identified by the user to suggest other possible matching faces in the same Aperture library. See also Faces view.

Faces view 

An Aperture view that displays snapshots of people in images in the library or in an item selected in the Library inspector that have been assigned names. See also face detection, face recognition, Flagged view, Photos view, Places view, Projects view, skimming.

fill-in lighting 

The use of an artificial light source, such as daylight lamps or flash, to soften a subject or fill in shadows. See also bounce lighting, color temperature, White Balance adjustment.

film 

A flexible transparent base coated with a light-sensitive emulsion capable of recording images. See also dust and scratch removal, emulsion.

filmstrip 

An interface element in Full Screen view that allows you to scroll through and search for images. See also Full Screen view.

filmstrip view 

A Browser view that allows you to quickly scroll through thumbnail images horizontally. See also Browser.

Filter HUD 

A floating window used to quickly locate images in the Browser based on a combination of criteria, such as adjustments, keywords, ratings, and EXIF metadata. See also EXIF, image, keywords, rating.

filters 

a. Modifiable search criteria used in the Filter HUD to return a specific selection of images. b. Effects applied in Photoshop that affect the visual quality of the image to which they’re applied. c. A colored piece of glass or plastic designed to be placed in front of a camera lens to change, emphasize, or eliminate density, reflections, or areas within the scene. See also compositing, density, effects.

Finder 

The part of the Mac operating system software that keeps track of files, applications, and folders and displays the desktop.

finishing 

The process of applying the final adjustments to a digital image just before presentation. Finishing may involve applying an additional gamma adjustment upon export, or using an external editor to either burn or dodge a portion of the image before sending it to the printer. See also export, external editor.

FireWire 

The trademarked Apple name for the IEEE 1394 standard, a fast and versatile interface used to connect external devices to computers. FireWire is well suited to transferring large amounts of data, and FireWire devices such as hard drives are often used to provide additional storage space. Aperture vaults are commonly stored on external FireWire hard drives. See also tethered shooting, USB, vault.

fixed lens 

See prime lens.

flag 

A type of metadata assigned in Aperture used to help filter images. You can flag images and then search for and display images in Aperture based on whether they are flagged or not. See also Flagged view, metadata.

Flagged view 

An Aperture view that displays all images, audio clips, and video clips in the library that have been flagged. See also Faces view, flag, Photos view, Places view, Projects view.

flash 

A device either on or attached to the camera that emits a brief, intense burst of light when the shutter release button is pressed. Flashes, synchronized with the shutter, are used to obtain a correctly exposed image in low-light situations. See also exposure, external flash, fill-in lighting, hot shoe.

flat 

The lack of density in an image when the contrast is too low. See also contrast, density.

Flip adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that inverts the composition of the image horizontally, vertically, or both. See also adjustment.

focal length 

The distance from the rear nodal point of the lens to the point where the light rays passing through the lens are focused onto the image plane—the digital image sensor. Focal lengths are measured in millimeters (mm).

focus point overlays 

See autofocus point overlays.

folder 

A type of container in the Aperture library used to organize projects and albums within projects. Folders do not contain images. See also album, library, project.

foreground 

The area of the image between the subject and the camera. See also background, depth of field.

format 

a. File format: A specific method of encoding information. Most well-known file formats, such as TIFF and PNG, have published specifications. b. Disk formatting: The preparation of a hard disk or other storage medium for use with a file system. For example, disk drives used with Mac OS X use the Mac OS Extended format. See also JPEG, PNG, PSD, TIFF, vault.

frame 

The border of an image. Frame can also be used as a verb to describe the process of constructing a composition within a specific image area. See also crop.

frontlighting 

A light source, emanating from the direction of the camera, that faces toward the subject. See also backlighting, sidelighting.

f-stop 

The ratio of the focal length of the lens to the diameter of the opening of the aperture. See also aperture.

Full Screen view 

A workspace view in Aperture with minimal user interface, used to view full-screen images with the least amount of light and color interference. See also Browser layout, filmstrip, HUD, Split View layout, Viewer layout.

Full Screen view toolbar 

A collection of buttons and tools, grouped by function, located at the top of the screen in Full Screen view. See also toolbar.

gamma 

A curve that describes how the middle tones of an image appear. Gamma is a nonlinear function often confused with brightness or contrast. Changing the value of the gamma affects middle tones while leaving the whites and blacks of the image unaltered. Gamma adjustment is often used to compensate for differences between Mac and Windows video cards and displays. The Mac Standard gamma is 1.8; the PC Standard is 2.2.

gamut 

The range of colors an individual color device is capable of reproducing. Each device capable of reproducing color has a unique gamut determined by age, frequency of use, and other elements such as inks and paper. See also device characterization, device dependent, gamut mapping, ICC profile.

gamut mapping 

The process of identifying colors outside a device’s gamut and then calculating the nearest color within its gamut. Gamut mapping is used when receiving color information from another color space. See also color space, gamut.

Global Positioning System (GPS) 

A U.S. space-based navigation system that provides reliable positioning, navigation, and timing services for civilian users on a continuous, worldwide basis. Aperture uses image location information provided by GPS-enabled cameras to plot where each image was shot on a map in Places view. See also GPS track log, Places view.

GPS track log 

A file consisting of digital bread crumbs that are used to define a path or route (“track”) using precise coordinates saved by a GPS device or GPS tracking iPhone application. If you have a GPS-enabled camera or iPhone or another GPS device that you use to create track files and save waypoints, you can import the track files into Aperture and work with them in Places view. See also Global Positioning System (GPS), Places view, waypoint.

grayscale 

Describes an image whose only colors are shades of gray. Usually grayscale images have smaller file sizes because less information is required to display a gray pixel, in which the red, green, and blue pixel elements all emit an equal intensity. See also Black & White adjustment, monochrome, pixel.

grid view 

A Browser view that displays images as a grid of thumbnails. Grid view is the Browser’s default view. See also Browser, filmstrip view, list view.

Halo Reduction Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment used to remove the blue and purple fringes that are occasionally produced with certain lenses when the image is overexposed. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Quick Brushes.

high definition video 

Generally refers to video that is 720 progressive scan lines or better, also known as HD video.

highlights 

The brightest areas of the subject or scene. See also contrast, density, shadows.

Highlights & Shadows adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture used to selectively adjust the highlights and shadows in an image. See also adjustment, highlights, shadows.

hot shoe 

An apparatus at the top of a camera designed to hold a portable flash. When the shutter release button is pressed, an electric signal is transmitted through a connection in the hot shoe to activate the portable flash. See also external flash, flash.

HUD 

Short for heads-up display. In Aperture, HUDs are floating windows that allow you to work on your image. You can open and then move a HUD wherever you wish, based on your display setup. See also Full Screen view.

hue 

An attribute of color perception; also known as color phase. For example, red and blue are different hues. See also Color adjustment.

ICC profile 

Created as a result of device characterization, the ICC profile contains the data about the device’s exact gamut. See also device characterization, gamut, International Color Consortium (ICC).

image 

An artifact that reproduces the likeness of some subject, usually a physical object or person, also known as a picture. See also image selection, photograph, picture, subject.

image selection 

Refers to an image or group of images selected in the Browser or the Full Screen view filmstrip. A white rectangle surrounding an image indicates it is selected. See also Browser, Full Screen view, image.

importing 

The process of bringing digital image files of various types into a project in Aperture. Imported files can be created in another application, downloaded from a camera or card reader, or brought in from another Aperture project. See also project.

inkjet printer 

A type of printer that creates images by spraying little ink droplets onto the paper. See also dye sublimation, photo printer, print, RA-4.

Inspector HUD 

A floating window that contains the Library, Metadata, and Adjustments panes. See also Inspector pane.

Inspector pane 

An element of the Aperture main window that contains the Library, Metadata, and Adjustments inspectors. See also Inspector HUD.

Intensify Contrast Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that corrects the shadow areas of the image that appear washed out by intensifying the contrast between pure black and 50 percent gray in the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. The Intensify Contrast Quick Brush adjustment is equivalent to applying an Overlay blend. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, contrast, Polarize Quick Brush, Quick Brushes, shadows.

International Color Consortium (ICC) 

An organization established to create the color management standard known as the ICC profile. ICC profiles are universally accepted by hardware and software vendors because they’re based on an open standard. See also ICC profile.

IPTC 

Short for International Press Telecommunications Council. IPTC metadata is used by photographers and media organizations to embed keywords (words describing the characteristics of the image, including the photographer’s name) in the image files themselves. Large publishers typically use image management systems to quickly identify images based on the IPTC information embedded in the image. See also EXIF, metadata.

IPTC Core 

A defined set of metadata fields, primarily used by photographers and news media, built on Adobe’s XMP technology. See also IPTC, metadata, XMP sidecar file.

iris 

See pupil.

ISO speed 

The relative sensitivity of film provided as a benchmark by the International Standards Organization (ISO). In digital cameras, the minimum ISO rating is defined by the sensitivity of the digital image sensor. When the ISO setting on the camera is increased, allowing the photographer to shoot in low-light situations, the camera amplifies the voltage received from the light-sensitive elements on the digital image sensor prior to converting the voltage signals to digital values. See also digital image sensor, digital noise.

JPEG 

Short for Joint Photographic Experts Group, JPEG is a popular image file format that lets you create highly compressed graphics files. The amount of compression used varies. Less compression results in a higher-quality image. JPEG files usually have the .jpg extension. See also format, RAW+JPEG image pair.

kelvin (K) 

A unit of measurement used to describe color values of light sources, based on a temperature scale that begins at absolute zero. See also color temperature, White Balance adjustment.

keywords 

Descriptive words about the subject in the image that are added to image versions and saved as metadata. See also control bar, Keywords HUD, metadata.

Keywords HUD 

A floating window containing a library of keywords that can be applied to an image selection. See also keywords, metadata.

lab plot 

A visual three-dimensional representation of the CIE Lab color space. See also color space, ColorSync.

lens 

A series of sophisticated elements—usually glass—constructed to refract and focus the reflective light from a scene at a specific point: the digital image sensor in a camera. See also camera, digital image sensor, macro lens, prime lens, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, zoom lens.

Levels adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that provides controls to selectively adjust the tonal range of an image. See also adjustment, image.

library 

In Aperture, a container file that holds projects, folders, albums, masters, and versions. You organize elements in the library, rename items, sort items, and so on using the Library inspector. By default, the Aperture Library file is located at /Users/username/Pictures/. See also album, folder, master, merging libraries, project, version.

Library Path Navigator pop-up menus 

A set of pop-up menus at the top-left corner of the screen in the Full Screen view Browser mode that are used to provide access to all the items in the Library inspector. See also Browser mode (Full Screen view), Full Screen view, library.

Lift & Stamp HUD 

A floating window that displays the attributes lifted from an image. You can choose which attributes are stamped on an image selection by deselecting the attributes you don’t want to apply. See also HUD, image selection, Lift and Stamp tools.

Lift and Stamp tools 

A pair of tools used in conjunction with the Lift & Stamp HUD to copy (lift) attributes, such as metadata and adjustments, from one image and paste (stamp) them on an image selection. See also adjustment, image selection, Lift & Stamp HUD, metadata.

light 

Visible energy in the electromagnetic spectrum with wavelengths ranging between 400 and 720 nanometers. See also electromagnetic radiation.

light meter 

A device capable of measuring the intensity of reflective light. Light meters are used as an aid for selecting the correct exposure settings on the camera. Most cameras have internal light meters. See also center-weighted metering, evaluative metering, meter, spot metering.

Light Table 

An area in the Aperture main window that appears when you select a Light Table album. The Light Table provides a large open space where you can place a large selection of images for review and drag them to new positions, group them in different combinations, and resize them as needed. See also album, Navigator button.

list view 

A Browser view that displays images in a list by name, icon, and accompanying metadata, such as rating, image dimensions, file size, and date, rather than as a row or grid of thumbnails. See also Browser, filmstrip view, grid view, metadata, rating.

Loupe 

A tool in Aperture used to magnify the area of the image you place it over. See also image.

luminance 

A value describing the brightness of all color channels combined in a pixel.

LZW compression 

A lossless data-compression algorithm developed by Abraham Lempel, Jakob Ziv, and Terry Welch in 1984. LZW compression algorithms are typically used with JPEG and TIFF graphics files to reduce the file size for archiving and transmission at a ratio of 2.8:1. See also compression, JPEG, TIFF.

macro lens 

A type of lens used for extreme close-up photography. See also camera, lens, prime lens, telephoto lens, wide-angle lens, zoom lens.

main Viewer 

For systems with multiple displays, the main Viewer is used for displaying the Aperture application. See also display, secondary Viewer.

managed images 

Images whose masters are stored in the Aperture library. The locations of the individual masters are managed by the Aperture database. Managed image files are always online. See also library, master, offline, online, referenced images.

master 

The source media file that was copied from either your computer’s file system or your camera’s memory card. In Aperture, the master is never modified. Whenever a change is made to an image, a video clip, or an audio clip, that change is applied to the version. See also memory card, project, version.

megapixel 

One million pixels. For example, 1,500,000 pixels equals 1.5 megapixels. See also digital image sensor, pixel.

memory card 

The device in the camera where digital images are stored. See also camera, capture.

merging libraries 

The process of importing an Aperture library file and merging its contents into the library that is currently open in Aperture. See also library.

metadata 

Data about data; metadata describes how data was collected and formatted. Databases use metadata to track specific forms of data. Aperture supports both EXIF and IPTC metadata. See also EXIF, IPTC.

meter 

The process of using a light meter to calculate the appropriate exposure. See also light meter.

midtones 

The color values in an image between the highlights and shadows. See also contrast, highlights, Highlights & Shadows adjustment, Levels adjustment, shadows.

mirroring 

The process of showing the same image on two or more displays. See also extended desktop mode.

Mirror setting 

A secondary Viewer setting that sets Aperture to present the same image selection on the main and secondary Viewer displays. See also display, image selection, mirroring, main Viewer, secondary Viewer.

moire pattern 

Refers to the type of visual pattern that is created by the interference of two grids overlaid on top of one another. Moire patterns can occur in images taken with digital cameras when the linear pattern in the image interferes with the linear pattern of the digital image sensor pixel array. The moire pattern often results from a weak anti-aliasing filter employed by the camera’s image processor. See also digital image sensor, RAW Fine Tuning adjustment.

monitor 

See display.

monochrome 

An image presented in shades of a single color, such as the shades of gray in a black-and-white photograph. See also Black & White adjustment, Color Monochrome adjustment, grayscale, image, photograph.

Navigator button 

A button in the Light Table used to reposition the view when the contents of the Light Table are larger than your screen. See also Light Table.

negative 

Developed film with a reverse-tone image of the subject or scene. See also dust and scratch removal, emulsion, film, positive.

New Version From Master command 

A command in the Photos menu that creates a new version from a selected image, audio clip, or video clip’s master. See also image, master, version.

noise 

See digital noise.

noise reduction 

The process of removing digital noise in an image. See also adjustment, digital noise, image, Noise Reduction adjustment, Noise Reduction Quick Brush.

Noise Reduction adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that reduces digital noise in an image. See also adjustment, digital noise, image, noise reduction.

Noise Reduction Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that removes digital noise in the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, digital noise, noise reduction, Quick Brushes.

N-up printing 

The process of consolidating a multiple-page document on a single sheet of paper. See also print.

Off setting 

A secondary Viewer setting that turns off the dual-display function. See also display, secondary Viewer.

offline 

Describes images whose masters are currently unavailable to Aperture. Offline images appear in the Viewer and Browser with badge overlays displaying a red slash through them. Images may be offline because the media containing the masters, such as a CD, DVD, FireWire drive, or server, is not connected to your computer or the original filenames have been modified in some way. To bring the images online, you must reconnect them to their corresponding masters. See also Browser, FireWire, master, online, preview images, Viewer.

offset press 

A type of professional printer used for high-volume printing for items such as magazines and brochures. Offset printing presses deposit ink in lines of halftone dots to produce images on the page. See also photo printer.

online 

Describes images whose masters are currently available to Aperture. See also offline.

opacity 

The level of an image’s transparency.

optical zoom lens 

See zoom lens.

overexposure 

The result of exposing a scene too long. Overexposed scenes appear too bright and lack adequate details in the shadows. See also exposure, underexposed.

panning 

a. Moving the camera along with a moving subject in order to keep the subject in the frame. Panning a fast-moving subject with a slow shutter speed usually causes the subject to remain relatively in focus, while the remaining areas of the scene are blurred or stretched in the direction of the camera movement. b. In Aperture, pressing the Space bar and dragging within an image to see other parts of the image when it is displayed at 100 percent size. See also camera, image, Viewer.

panorama 

Usually refers to a scenic landscape image with a wide aspect ratio. Photographers often digitally combine, or “stitch,” multiple images of the same scene to create a continuous panoramic image. See also aspect ratio.

perceptual 

A type of render intent that compresses the total gamut from one device’s color space into the gamut of another device’s color space when one or more colors in the original image are out of the gamut of the destination color space. This preserves the visual relationship between colors by shrinking the entire color space and shifting all colors. However, colors that were in gamut also shift. See also gamut, relative colorimetric, rendering intent.

phase 

An attribute of color perception; also known as hue. See also hue.

photo edit 

The process of choosing selects from a group of images, as well as sorting out images that you don’t plan to use or publish, also known as rejects. The more aggressively you cull undesirable images from your working group of images, the more time you save when you process the images for display. See also rating, Reject rating, Select rating.

photograph 

An image created using a camera as a result of light interacting with a light-sensitive surface, usually film or a digital image sensor. See also camera, digital image sensor, film, picture.

photo printer 

A type of printer capable of producing photo-quality images. See also dye sublimation, gamut, inkjet printer, offset press, print, RA-4.

Photo Stream 

An iCloud service that uploads and stores the last 30 days of your photos and automatically pushes them to all your iOS devices and computers. Also a view in Aperture that displays all the photos that have been uploaded to Photo Stream from your iOS 5 devices and the Aperture library. See also Faces view, Flagged view, Photos view, Places view, Projects view.

Photos view 

An Aperture view that displays all the images, audio clips, and video clips in the library. See also Faces view, Flagged view, Photo Stream, Places view, Projects view.

pick 

The image that represents a stack. The pick is usually the best image in the stack. See also alternate, stack.

picture 

A visual representation rendered on a flat surface or screen, such as a photograph. See also image, photograph.

Pictures folder 

Located in the Home folder, the Pictures folder is the default location for Aperture and iPhoto libraries. See also library.

pixel 

The smallest discernible visual element of a digital image. See also megapixel.

Places Path Navigator pop-up menus 

A set of pop-up menus located at the top-left corner of the screen in Places view that are used to navigate to locations on the map. See also Places view.

Places view 

A view in Aperture that allows you to apply location information to an image selection and track the location of each shot using Google Maps. Images captured with GPS-enabled cameras provide their location information automatically. See also Faces view, Flagged view, Global Positioning System (GPS), Photos view, Places Path Navigator pop-up menus, Projects view, waypoint.

PNG 

Short for Portable Network Graphics. PNG is a bitmapped graphics file format that has been approved by the World Wide Web Consortium to replace patented GIF files. PNG files are patent and royalty free. See also format.

Polarize Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that deepens the colors in the image by specifically darkening the shadows and midtones while preserving the highlights in the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. The Polarize Quick Brush adjustment is equivalent to applying a Multiply blend. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, contrast, highlights, Intensify Contrast Quick Brush, midtones, Quick Brushes, shadows.

polarizing filter 

A filter placed on the front of the camera lens that selectively transmits light traveling on one plane while absorbing light traveling on other planes. Polarizing filters are capable of reducing unwanted reflections on windows and shiny surfaces. Polarizing filters are also used to darken the sky. See also filters.

positive 

Developed film where the tonal relationship of the subject or scene is the same on film as when viewed by the eye; also known as a slide. See also dust and scratch removal, emulsion, negative.

presets 

A saved group of settings, such as export, naming, print, and web export settings. Presets determine properties such as file format, file compression, filename construction, paper size, and ColorSync profile. Presets are usually defined for particular workflows and can be tailored to client specifications. See also ColorSync.

pressure-sensitive tablet 

An input device used in place of a mouse that consists of two parts: a flat surface for drawing (the interface that is connected to the computer) and a pen or stylus. The harder you press the stylus against the surface of the tablet, the thicker the line or brush stroke is. See also Brush HUD, Quick Brushes.

preview images 

JPEG images generated by Aperture that represent the original master with any applied adjustments and associated metadata. Preview images are designed to be shared with other applications, such as iWork and iLife applications, and used in place of the masters when they are offline. See also adjustment, JPEG, metadata, offline.

primary selection 

The most important image in an image selection. Adjustments are applied only to the primary selection in an image selection. The primary selection is identified by a thicker white border. There can be only one primary selection in an image selection. See also adjustment, image selection, Primary setting.

Primary setting 

A Viewer setting in Aperture that limits metadata changes to only the primary selection in a multiple-image selection. See also filmstrip, image selection, metadata, primary selection.

prime lens 

A lens with a fixed focal length that cannot be changed.

print 

An image printed on paper; also known as a photograph. See also dye sublimation, inkjet printer, N-up printing, RA-4.

profile 

A compilation of data on a specific device’s color information, including its gamut, color space, and modes of operation. A profile represents a device’s color-reproduction capabilities and is essential to effective color management. See also device characterization, gamut.

program exposure 

An exposure mode on many automatic cameras in which the camera automatically sets the aperture and shutter values for a correct exposure. See also exposure.

project 

In Aperture, the top-level container that holds all the masters, versions, and metadata associated with your shoot. In the case of referenced images, the masters are stored in their current location rather than in the project file. See also album, folder, library, master, referenced images, version.

Projects mode (Full Screen view) 

A view mode in Full Screen view, similar to the Projects view in the Aperture main window. All projects are displayed, and each project is represented by one large thumbnail of an image within the project. You can position the pointer over a project thumbnail and drag to quickly skim the images in the project. See also Browser mode (Full Screen view), Full Screen view, Projects view, Viewer mode (Full Screen view).

Projects view 

A workspace view in Aperture, accessed by selecting the Projects item in the Library inspector, in which all projects are displayed. Each project is represented by one large thumbnail of an image within the project. You can position the pointer over a project thumbnail and drag to quickly skim the images in the project. See also Faces view, Flagged view, Photos view, Places view, Projects mode (Full Screen view), skimming.

promote 

The process of moving an image in a stack closer to the pick position. See also demote, image, pick, stack.

PSD 

Short for Photoshop Document. PSD files are proprietary graphics files for Adobe Systems Incorporated. See also format.

pupil 

The part of the eye that contracts and expands depending on the amount of light; also known as the iris.

quantization 

The process of converting a value derived from an analog source to a discrete digital value. See also digitization.

Quick Brushes 

Used to apply selective adjustments to an image by brushing the adjustment over a portion of the image. See also adjustment, brushed adjustment, brushed adjustment overlay, Brush HUD.

QuickTime 

A cross-platform multimedia technology developed by Apple. Widely used for editing, compositing, web video, and more.

RA-4 

A type of professional printer capable of printing digital files on traditional photographic paper. RA-4 printers use a series of colored lights to expose the paper; the colors blend together to produce continuous-tone prints. See also dye sublimation, inkjet printer, photo printer, print.

RAID 

Short for Redundant Array of Independent Disks. A method of providing photographers who have large image libraries many gigabytes of high-performance data storage by formatting a group of hard disks to act as a single drive volume. The performance of a group of hard disks striped together as a RAID can be much higher than that of the individual disks.

RAM 

Short for random-access memory. A computer’s memory capacity, measured in megabytes (MB) or gigabytes (GB), which determines the amount of data the computer can process and temporarily store at any moment.

rangefinder 

An apparatus found on many cameras that is used to help focus the image. See also camera, viewfinder.

raster image processor (RIP) 

A specialized printer driver that replaces the driver that comes with your printer. It takes input from applications and converts, or rasterizes, the information to data that the printer understands so that it can put dots on a page. Software RIPs typically offer features not found in standard printer drivers.

rating 

In Aperture, the process of adding a value to an image to indicate its quality in relation to other images in a selection. See also photo edit, Reject rating, Select rating.

RAW 

The original bit-for-bit digital image file captured by the camera. See also RAW+JPEG image pair.

RAW Fine Tuning adjustment 

A set of adjustment parameters in Aperture used to control how Aperture decodes RAW image files. See also moire pattern.

RAW+JPEG image pair 

An image captured by a professional digital camera and saved as both an individual RAW file and an individual JPEG file. You can set Aperture to import one file type or both file types in the pair. See also JPEG, RAW.

reciprocity 

The relationship between the aperture and the shutter that allows for correct exposures as a result of multiple shutter speed and aperture setting combinations. An increase in aperture and a decrease in shutter speed creates the same exposure as the previous aperture and shutter combination, and vice versa. See also aperture, shutter.

Recovery parameter 

An Exposure adjustment parameter in Aperture used to recover highlight detail. See also Exposure adjustment.

red-eye 

The phenomenon that gives people glowing red eyes in photographs. Red-eye is caused by the close proximity of the flash to the lens (especially built-in flash). See also external flash, Red Eye Correction adjustment.

Red Eye Correction adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that replaces red pixels with black, eliminating the red-eye effect. Used in conjunction with the Red Eye tool. See also adjustment, pixel, red-eye.

referenced images 

Images whose masters are stored outside of the Aperture library. See also library, managed images, offline, online.

Reject rating 

In Aperture, a negative rating applied to an image as part of the photo editing process. See also photo edit, rating, Select rating.

relative colorimetric 

A rendering intent suitable for printing photographic images. It compares the highlight values of the source color space to that of the destination color space and shifts out-of-gamut colors to the closest reproducible color in the destination color space. This render intent can cause two colors, which appear different in the source color space, to be the same in the target color space, also known as clipping. See also gamut, perceptual, rendering intent.

rendering intent 

The method by which colors that are out of gamut for a selected output device are mapped to that device’s reproducible gamut. See also gamut, perceptual, relative colorimetric.

Repair brush 

A type of Retouch brush in Aperture used to correct and obscure imperfections in an image by copying pixels from a similar-looking area of an image and pasting them over the area with the pixels you want to replace. In addition to overwriting the pixels, the Repair brush resamples the pasted pixels to match the color, texture, and luminance of the pixels you replaced. See also Clone brush, retouching, Retouch adjustment.

resolution 

The amount of information a digital image is capable of conveying. Resolution is determined by the combination of file size (number of pixels), bit depth (pixel depth), and dots per inch (dpi). See also bit depth, dots per inch (dpi), pixel.

Retouch adjustment 

In Aperture, an adjustment used to correct or obscure imperfections in an image. Used in conjunction with the Retouch HUD, which provides a Clone brush and a Repair brush. See also adjustment, Clone brush, Repair brush.

retouching 

The process of altering an image to add or remove details. See also Clone brush, compositing, effects, filters, Repair brush, Retouch adjustment.

RGB 

Short for Red, Green, Blue. A color space commonly used on computers, in which each color is described by the strength of its red, green, and blue components. This color space directly translates to the red, green, and blue elements used in computer displays. The RGB color space has a very large gamut, meaning it can reproduce a wide range of colors. This range is typically larger than the range that printers can reproduce. See also additive color.

rods 

A type of receptor in the eye capable of perceiving luminance. Rods do not perceive color, but only levels of brightness. See also cones.

saturation 

The intensity of color in an image. Saturated colors are perceived to have a “purer” look, resulting from the absence of the color gray. See also adjustment, desaturate.

Saturation parameter 

An Enhance adjustment parameter in Aperture used to adjust saturation in an image. See also adjustment, desaturate, Enhance adjustment, saturation.

Saturation Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that adds saturation to or removes it from the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Quick Brushes, saturation.

secondary Viewer 

The secondary Viewer is used to present images on a second display, separate from the application workspace. The secondary Viewer has five settings: Mirror, Alternate, Span, Black, and Off. See also Alternate setting, Black setting, display, main Viewer, Mirror setting, Off setting, Span setting.

selective focus 

The process of isolating a subject by using an f-stop that produces a shallow depth of field. See also depth of field.

Select rating 

In Aperture, the highest rating that can be applied to an image as part of the photo editing process. A Select rating is applied when you intend to display or distribute the image. See also photo edit, rating, Reject rating.

sepia 

Describes a photograph with a brown tint. See also photograph, Sepia Tone adjustment, Tint adjustment.

Sepia Tone adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that changes a color image to sepia—allowing you to desaturate the color image to the level of sepia coloring you want. See also adjustment, desaturate, image, sepia, Tint adjustment.

shadows 

The darkest areas of a subject or scene. See also contrast, density, highlights.

Sharpen adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture used to sharpen images. See also adjustment, Edge Sharpen adjustment, image.

Sharpen Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that sharpens the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Quick Brushes.

shortcut menu 

A menu you access by holding down the Control key and clicking an area of the interface, or by pressing the right mouse button.

shutter 

A complicated mechanism, usually consisting of a blade or a curtain, that precisely controls the duration of time light passing through the lens remains in contact with the digital image sensor. See also shutter speed.

shutter priority 

A setting on certain cameras that automatically sets the aperture for a correct exposure based on the shutter speed set by the photographer. See also aperture priority, exposure.

shutter speed 

The length of time the shutter is open or the digital image sensor is activated or charged. Shutter speeds appear as fractions of a second, such as 1/8 or 1/250. See also shutter.

Shuttle control 

A control in the Browser that allows you to quickly advance through images. See also Browser.

sidelighting 

Light that hits the subject from the side, perpendicular to the angle of the camera. See also backlighting, frontlighting.

silhouette 

An image in which the subject is a solid dark shape against a bright background. Extreme backlighting, such as a sunset, can cause the silhouette effect when your subject is placed in the foreground. See also backlighting, foreground.

skimming 

The act of quickly navigating through images of a person in Faces view or images within a project in Projects view by slowly dragging over the thumbnail representing the person in Faces view or the project in Projects view. See also Faces view, Projects view.

Skin Smoothing Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment used to smooth a person’s skin by subtly blurring wrinkles and skin pores in the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Quick Brushes.

slide 

See positive.

slider 

In Aperture, an interface element that can be dragged forward or backward to make an adjustment. Sliders can be found in the Adjustments inspector as well as in the Adjustments pane of the Inspector HUD. See also adjustment, HUD, Inspector HUD.

slideshow 

An animated presentation of a series of images. In Aperture, slideshows can be combined with music to present a series of images across up to two displays.

Smart Album 

Dynamic albums in Aperture used to organize images by gathering versions based on search criteria. See also album, Smart Settings HUD, version.

Smart Settings HUD 

A floating window used to quickly locate images based on a combination of criteria, such as adjustments, keywords, ratings, and EXIF metadata, for the specific purpose of specifying image criteria for the contents of Smart Albums. See also EXIF, image, keywords, rating, Smart Album.

soft lighting 

See diffused lighting.

soft proof 

The onscreen simulation by a display of the expected output from a printer or press.

Sorting pop-up menu 

Used to arrange images in the Browser based on a variety of sort properties or custom sort criteria. See also Browser, image.

source image file 

See master.

source profile 

The profile of an image file before it undergoes color conversion.

Span setting 

A secondary Viewer setting that splits the presentation of the current image selection between the main and secondary Viewer displays. See also image selection, main Viewer, secondary Viewer.

spectrophotometer 

An instrument that measures the wavelength of color across an entire spectrum of colors. Because it can be used to profile both displays and printers, the spectrophotometer is preferred for device profiling.

Split View layout 

A main window layout in Aperture that displays the Viewer and Browser at the same time. See also Browser, Browser layout, Viewer, Viewer layout.

Spot & Patch adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture used to retouch imperfections in an image, such as sensor dust. See also adjustment.

spot metering 

A type of metering that operates by metering within a small target that is usually in the center of the frame. See also center-weighted metering, evaluative metering, light meter.

sRGB 

A common working space designed to represent the average PC monitor. Because of its small gamut, it is suitable for web graphics but not for print production. See also working space.

stack 

In Aperture, a set of similar images, where only one image is intended for use. See also alternate, pick.

stopping down 

The process of changing the aperture, or f-stop, to a smaller opening. See also aperture, f-stop.

Straighten adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that levels the image’s horizon. Used in conjunction with the Straighten tool. See also adjustment.

subject 

The main object, person, scene, or incident chosen by the photographer to be represented in an image. See also candid shot, image.

subtractive color 

Images with color elements derived from the light reflected off the surface of an object. CMYK is a common form of subtractive color. See also CMYK.

SWOP 

Short for Specifications for Web Offset Publications, a standard printing-press profile. Web here refers to a web press, not to the Internet.

tabs 

In Aperture, elements that delineate projects, folders, or albums in the Browser when more than one is selected in the Library inspector. You click a tab to view the contents of a currently open project, folder, or album. See also album, folder, project.

target 

A reference file used to profile a device such as a scanner or digital camera. It often contains patches whose color values have been measured. The output from a device is then compared with the target. See also device characterization.

telephoto lens 

A lens with a long focal length that magnifies the subject. See also lens.

tethered shooting 

Refers to the process of connecting a digital camera to your Mac via a FireWire or USB cable, shooting photographs, and having Aperture capture and store the image files at the moment they are shot. See also camera, FireWire.

theme 

Professionally designed layouts used for books, webpages, and slideshows in Aperture. See also slideshow.

TIFF 

Short for Tagged Image File Format. TIFF is a widely used bitmapped graphics file format, developed by Aldus and Microsoft, that handles monochrome, grayscale images. See also format, grayscale, monochrome.

tint 

The shade of a color. See also color cast.

Tint adjustment 

An adjustment parameter in Aperture used to selectively remove color casts in the shadows, midtones, and highlights in an image. See also adjustment, color cast, exposure.

Tint Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that shifts the tint in the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Quick Brushes, tint.

toolbar 

A collection of buttons and controls, grouped by function, located at the top of the Aperture main window. See also Full Screen view toolbar.

transition 

A visual effect applied between images in a slideshow. In Aperture, you can choose the type and duration of the transition between images. See also slideshow.

travel maps 

Maps in an Aperture book that use location data from your photos or location data that you add manually using the Book Layout Editor to illustrate your journey. Travel maps can be generated in the Book Layout Editor by selecting a book theme that supports the travel map feature. See also Places view.

tripod 

A stand with three legs used to keep a camera steady. The use of a tripod is especially necessary when shooting long exposures. See also camera shake, exposure.

tungsten light 

A type of light with a low color temperature. Tungsten light sources usually include household lamps but should not be confused with fluorescent lights. See also color temperature, White Balance adjustment.

underexposed 

The result of not exposing a scene long enough. Underexposed scenes appear dark. See also exposure, overexposure.

unipod 

Similar to a tripod; a stand with one leg used as an aid in keeping a camera steady. See also camera shake, exposure.

untagged 

A document or an image that lacks an embedded profile.

USB 

Short for Universal Serial Bus. A versatile interface used to connect external devices to computers. USB cables are often used to connect computers to computer peripherals, such as keyboards and digital cameras, as well as transfer large amounts of data. See also camera, FireWire, tethered shooting.

vault 

A designated storage space that contains an exact copy of the Aperture library (from the last time you backed up), usually saved on an external FireWire drive. See also FireWire, library.

version 

The file containing all the metadata and adjustment information applied to an image, a video clip, or an audio clip. In Aperture, only versions are changed. Aperture never changes masters. See also master.

Vibrancy parameter 

An Enhance adjustment parameter in Aperture used to add saturation in an image in a nonlinear manner. Saturated colors are left alone while saturation is added to all other colors. However, skin tones are not modified. See also adjustment, desaturate, Enhance adjustment, saturation.

Vibrancy Quick Brush 

A type of Quick Brush adjustment that adds saturation to or removes it from just the desaturated colors in the area of the image the adjustment is brushed on. Skin tones are not affected. See also adjustment, Brush HUD, Quick Brushes, saturation.

video clip 

An instance of a segment of video in Aperture; a video file’s version. See also version, video file.

video file 

The source media file on disk to which a video clip in Aperture refers; the video clip’s master. See also master, video clip.

Viewer 

An area in Aperture that displays the images currently selected in the Browser. You can use the Viewer to perform adjustments on images as well as compare them with each other. See also Browser.

Viewer layout 

A main window layout in Aperture in which the Browser is hidden. See also Browser, Browser layout, Full Screen view, Split View layout, Viewer.

Viewer mode (Full Screen view) 

A view mode in Full Screen view, similar to the Viewer in the Aperture main window. When Full Screen view is set to Viewer mode, images are presented at high resolution over a solid-color background. Viewer mode is ideal for performing image adjustments. See also Browser mode (Full Screen view), Full Screen view, Projects mode (Full Screen view), Viewer.

viewfinder 

The part of the camera designed to preview the area of the scene that will be captured by the digital image sensor. See also camera, digital image sensor.

Vignette adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture designed to add a vignette effect to an image. See also Devignette adjustment, vignetting.

vignetting 

a. Darkening, also known as falloff, at the corners of the image as a result of too many filters attached to the lens, a large lens hood, or poor lens design. b. The process of applying a vignette to an image for artistic effect. See also Devignette adjustment, filters, lens, Vignette adjustment.

watermark 

A visible graphic or text overlay applied to an image to indicate that the image is protected by a copyright. Watermarks are used to discourage the use of images without the copyright holder’s explicit permission.

waypoint 

A coordinate saved in a GPS track log representing a specific geographic location. In Aperture, waypoints can be assigned to images in Places view. See also GPS track log, Places view.

White Balance adjustment 

An adjustment in Aperture that changes the color temperature and tint of a digital image. The goal of adjusting an image’s white balance is to neutralize color casts in an image. For example, if the white in an image is too yellow because of incandescent lighting, white balancing adds enough blue to make the white appear neutral. See also color cast, color temperature, kelvin (K).

white point 

The color temperature of a display, measured in kelvins. The higher the white point, the bluer the white is; the lower the white point, the redder the white. The native white point for a Mac computer is D50 (5000 kelvins); for a Windows PC, it is D65 (6500 kelvins). See also color temperature, kelvin (K).

wide-angle lens 

A lens with a short focal length that takes in a wide view. The focal length of a wide-angle lens is smaller than the film plane or digital image sensor. See also digital image sensor, lens.

working space 

The color space in which you edit a file. Working spaces are based either on color space profiles such as Apple RGB or on device profiles.

XMP sidecar file 

An extensible markup language designed by Adobe Systems Incorporated that is used for defining metadata sets for photo editing applications. Resources, such as adjustment parameters, can be saved in this file and passed on to other applications. See also adjustment, IPTC, IPTC Core, metadata.

zoom lens 

A lens that has the mechanical capacity to change its focal length; also known as an optical zoom lens. See also lens.

Zoom Viewer button 

A button in the Viewer and the Full Screen view toolbar that alternates the display of the image selection between fitting the images within the Viewer and presenting the images at 100 percent size. See also control bar, filmstrip, image, image selection, Viewer.