Glossary
2:3:2:3 pull-down 

A pull-down method that is the same as the 3:2 pull-down method, except that it is applied by a digital video camcorder (as opposed to any other type of equipment that could apply the same pattern of pull-down). This manual uses the term 2:3:2:3 when referring to the pull-down that comes from a 24p digital video camcorder; this type of pull-down can be removed using the automated form of reverse telecine. See also 3:2 pull-down .

2:3:3:2 pull-down 

A method of distributing film’s 24 fps among NTSC video’s 29.97 fps when film or 24p video is transferred to NTSC video. In the transfer, the recording alternates two fields of one frame and then three fields of the next two frames, followed by two fields of the next frame. In this way, the 24 frames in 1 second of film or 24p video fill up the 30 frames in 1 second of NTSC video. Although 3:2 is the conventionally supported pull-down pattern for NTSC devices, some digital cameras and editing systems are beginning to support 2:3:3:2 pull-down.

3:2 pull-down  

A method of distributing film’s 24 fps among NTSC video’s 29.97 fps when film or 24p video is transferred to NTSC video. In the transfer, the recording alternates two fields of one frame and then three fields of the next, so that the 24 frames in 1 second of film or 24p video fill up the 30 frames in 1 second of NTSC video. Also known as 2:3 pull-down.

3-perf 35mm  

A 35mm film format supported by Cinema Tools. Refers to having three perforations (sprocket holes) for each film frame. It is gaining popularity, especially with episodic television, because it contains 25 percent more frames per foot of film than the more common 4-perf 35mm format.

4-perf 35mm  

A common 35mm film format that is supported by Cinema Tools. Refers to having four perforations (sprocket holes) for each film frame.

24 & 1 

A method of transferring film to PAL video, where two extra fields per second are added to the video so the 24 frames in 1 second of film are all contained within the 25 frames in 1 second of PAL video. This method maintains the original action speed. See also 24 @ 25, 24 @ 25 pull-down.

24 @ 25 

The most common method of transferring film to PAL video, where the film is sped up during the telecine transfer to 25 fps. This creates a one-to-one film-to-video frame relationship, but speeds up the action by 4 percent. See also 24 & 1, 24 @ 25 pull-down.

24 @ 25 pull-down 

The Final Cut Pro term for the 24 & 1 method. See also 24 & 1, 24 @ 25.

24p 

A high definition video format using a 24 fps rate and progressively scanned video. It is finding wide use in film production because of its high quality and identical frame rate. It also converts easily to most 29.97 fps and 25 fps standard and high definition video formats.

Acmade number  

See ink number .

“A” frame  

The first frame in the repeating five-frame 3:2 pull-down sequence. In two-field 3:2 pull-down video, it is the only frame that fully contains both fields from a single film frame. B, C, and D frames have their fields split among two video frames. A frames normally occur on timecode numbers ending with “0” or “5” (when using non-drop frame timecode). See also 3:2 pull-down , field .

ALE file  

Abbreviation for Avid Log Exchange. A file format that allows film databases to be shared between different systems. See also telecine log .

answer print  

The first film print that includes sound and picture, submitted by the laboratory for the customer’s approval.

aspect ratio  

The ratio of an image’s width to its height expressed either as two numbers (width:height) or as a value equal to the height divided by the width. Standard definition video uses 4:3 (0.75), and most high definition video uses 16:9 (0.56). Film aspect ratios depend on the format and lenses used.

change list  

A list you can export from Final Cut Pro using Cinema Tools, which assumes a workprint or negative has been cut to the specifications of a cut list (or prior change list) and specifies further changes to make based on new edits you have made to a Final Cut Pro sequence.

conform (film)  

To cut and arrange an original camera negative to match edits made in a digital editing system. Also, to assemble video or audio according to an Edit Decision List (EDL). See also cut list , Edit Decision List (EDL) .

conform (video)  

To change the frame rate of a video clip. For example, you can use the Cinema Tools Conform feature to change the frame rate of a PAL 25 fps video clip to film’s 24 fps rate. You can also conform a clip to its current frame rate, ensuring there are no frame rate errors within it.

contact printing  

A film printing method in which the emulsion sides of the original camera negative and the print stock are in contact as the negative is projected onto the print stock. Creates an image that is reversed in color and light (for example, black becomes white and white becomes black).

cut list  

A text file that sequentially lists the edits that make up your program. The negative cutter uses the cut list to conform the original camera negative. The cut list is a type of film list you can export from Final Cut Pro using Cinema Tools. Also known as an assemble list.

device control  

Technology that allows Final Cut Pro to control an external hardware device, such as a video deck or camera.

digital intermediate (DI) 

A film workflow that does not rely on conforming the original camera negative for the final output. Generally, the film is scanned and processed at a high enough quality that the final output can be directly sent to a film printer or distributed as digital video. This term is also used even if the source for the video is a high-quality digital camera such as the RED ONE and no film is involved at all.

downconverted video  

Video created by converting high definition video (such as 24p) to standard definition video (NTSC or PAL).

DPX image sequence 

Digital Picture Exchange (DPX) image sequences are often referred to by their resolution. For example, DPX image sequences with 2048 horizontal pixels are referred to as 2K resolution, and DPX image sequences with 4096 horizontal pixels are referred to as 4K resolution. The video is actually a set of still images, one per frame, within a folder. The images are played back in sequence at their specified frame rate. DPX image sequences are often used as part of a DI workflow. Cinema Tools uses the folder name as the reel name and extracts the timecode from each image. See also digital intermediate (DI).

drop frame timecode  

NTSC timecode that skips ahead in time by two frame numbers each minute, except for minutes ending in “0,” so that the end timecode total agrees with the actual elapsed clock time. (Timecode numbers are skipped, but actual video frames are not skipped.) This skipping corrects for NTSC’s actual frame rate of 29.97 fps, which results in an inaccuracy of 3 seconds and 18 frames per hour in comparison to actual elapsed time when non-drop frame timecode is used. To avoid confusion, drop frame timecode should be avoided in film-based productions. See also non-drop frame timecode .

dropped frames  

Frames that are not captured. If computer performance is impeded or if the scratch disk is not fast enough, frames may be dropped during the capture process. When a frame is dropped during capture, the frame before it is repeated. Dropped frames can result in an incorrect cut list and interfere with the reverse telecine process.

dual system sound  

Sound for any production using separate devices to record the image and the sound. Dual system recording is always used in film productions and often used in 24p productions. Also known as double system production.

duplicate list  

A film list Cinema Tools users can export, indicating duplicate uses of the same film source material in an edited program. Also known as a dupe list.

edge code  

Refers to feet and frame count numbers found on the film edge. May be latent key numbers on the original camera negative, or ink numbers added to the edge of workprints. See also ink number , key number .

Edit Decision List (EDL)  

A text file that sequentially lists all of the edits and individual clips used in a sequence. EDLs are used to move a project from one editing application to another, or to coordinate the assembly of a program in a tape-based online editing facility.

Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) 

The language used by the Cinema Tools style sheets. XSLT-based style sheets are commonly used to extract information from XML files. When you export a style sheet–based film list, Cinema Tools first exports an XML-format film list and then processes that XML output with the selected style sheet, resulting in exactly the output items and layout the style sheet specifies. See also style sheet.

field  

Half of an interlaced video frame consisting of the odd or the even scan lines. Alternating video fields are drawn every 1/60 of a second in NTSC video (1/50 of a second in PAL) to create the perceived 29.97 fps video (25 fps PAL). There are two fields for every frame, an upper field and a lower field. It is possible to capture only one field of each frame. See also interlaced video .

field dominance  

Refers to the field that occurs first in an interlaced video frame. If only one field is captured, field 1 dominance means that only field 1 is captured and field 2 dominance means that only field 2 is captured. See also field .

film list  

A text file you give to the negative cutter to use as a guide in conforming the original camera negative. The film list may contain one or more of the following: a cut list, a missing elements list, a duplicate list, an optical list, a pull list, and a scene list. A film list may also contain additional information for pulling the negative rolls, making duplicate negatives, making a workprint, or printing effects.

FLEx file  

A common telecine log file format. See also telecine log .

footage number  

Part of a key number; refers to the four-digit number indicating the position on a film roll. See also frame number , key number .

found set  

The set of database entries shown in the Cinema Tools List View window. This set is called the found set because you use the Find command to display it.

fps  

Abbreviation for frames per second.

frame  

A single still image. Film and video are made up of a series of these images. Although a film frame is a photographic image, a video frame contains one or more fields.

frame number  

The last part of the key number. The frame number consists of the footage number and the frame counter and indicates how many feet and frames into the film a particular frame occurs. See also key number .

HD video  

See high definition video .

high definition video  

Refers to any of a wide range of video formats, including the 24p format, providing a higher-quality image than standard definition video. Enhancements can include increased resolution, a wider aspect ratio, and progressive scanning. See also progressive video , standard definition video .

identifier  

In Cinema Tools, a combination of one or more letters, numbers, or both, that identify a shot, scene, take, video reel, sound roll, lab roll, or camera roll.

ink number  

A feet and frame count number added to the edge of workprints and magnetic film soundtracks. Also known as an Acmade number.

interlaced  

See interlaced video .

interlaced video  

A video frame format that divides the lines in a frame of video into two fields, each consisting of alternating odd and even lines, which are scanned at different times. Used in standard definition video. See also field , field dominance , progressive video .

interpositive (IP)  

A low-contrast positive film print made from an original camera negative. It is not projectable as a full-color image, because it has an orange mask on it like a negative. IPs are typically used as an intermediate step in creating opticals and duplicate negatives.

key number  

Latent feet and frame count numbers found on the film edge. Key numbers are often superimposed by the telecine onto the edge of the video frames (this is called window burn). Cinema Tools uses key numbers to help match digital edits back to the original camera negative. Key numbers consist of a key prefix, which is unchanging throughout an entire roll of film, and a frame number, which consists of a footage number and a frame count number. Telecine systems also often add a frame type identifier to the key number. For example, in the key number KJ 291010 5867+07, the key prefix is “KJ 291010” and the frame number is “5867+07.” Also known as edge code.

latent key number  

A number added to the film edge during its manufacturing process. Also known as latent edge code. See also key number .

match back  

To match the edits of a video program that originated on film back to the original camera negative. All the edits to the video are listed in a cut list, which the negative cutter uses to cut the workprint and original camera negative.

negative cutter  

A professional who conforms the original camera negative according to a cut list or a visual reference such as a workprint or a videotape generated by the digital editing system.

non-drop frame timecode  

Normal NTSC timecode, where frames are numbered sequentially and there are 30 frames per second, 60 seconds per minute, and 60 minutes per hour. Because NTSC’s frame rate is actually 29.97 fps, non-drop frame timecode is off by 3 seconds and 18 frames per hour in comparison to actual elapsed time. See also drop frame timecode .

NTSC  

Abbreviation for National Television Standards Committee, the organization that defines North American broadcast standards. The term NTSC video refers to the video standard defined by the committee, which is 29.97 fps, 525 lines per frame, and interlaced.

offline edit  

The creative edit, where edit decisions are made. When the offline edit is finished, the material is often recaptured at high quality or an EDL is generated for re-creating the edit on another system. See also Edit Decision List (EDL) .

OMF  

Abbreviation for Open Media Format. A media interchange format, supported by many Digital Audio Workstations (DAWs), that allows all of the audio and edit points in an audio sequence to be exported as a self-contained file. OMF files are often given to an audio post-production facility, finished there, and then used as the final audio in a feature.

online edit  

The final editing process, where all the decisions made in the offline edit are applied to the original camera negative or full-resolution video reels.

optical list  

A film list Cinema Tools users can export for the optical house to use in printing effects for film. The optical list describes transition and motion effects that you created in your digital edit.

optical printer  

Rephotographs one or more film elements onto a new section of film. An optical printer can add or delete light from an image, create superimposed effects, or make scene transitions such as wipes, fades, and dissolves.

opticals  

Effects produced by an optical printer, including transitions and superimposed titles. See also optical printer .

original camera negative  

Also known as OCN. The negatives from the film shoot; the original source film. The original camera negative is what the negative cutter cuts after all the edits have been finalized in the digital editing system. There is only one original camera negative. (Duplicate negatives can be made, but they are expensive.)

PAL  

Acronym for Phase Alternating Line. A video format used by many European countries and other countries outside North America. The PAL video standard is 25 fps, 625 lines per frame, and interlaced.

progressive video  

A video frame format that progressively scans all lines in a frame. See also interlaced video .

pull list  

A film list Cinema Tools users can export, which list shots in the cut list in the order in which they can be found on the negative rolls. The lab refers to a pull list when going through your negative rolls to pull shots for a workprint or original camera negative cut.

release print  

A positive print of a finished movie; the final product for distribution.

reverse telecine  

The process that removes the extra frames from 3:2 pull-down video, returning it to its original 24 fps frame rate. Reverse telecine creates a one-to-one relationship between the video and film frames so that the cut lists are accurate. Reversing the 3:2 pull-down can be accomplished with hardware in real time during capture, but if you do not have the proper equipment, you can use the Cinema Tools Reverse Telecine feature. See also 3:2 pull-down .

scene  

In filming, a time and place setting for one or more shots, typically tied together by a common story line or certain characters.

scene list  

A film list Cinema Tools users can export, which lists all the shots that are in the cut list with each shot listed only once. Scene lists are typically used to order prints of the shots in a program so that a workprint can be conformed prior to cutting the original camera negative.

shot  

A continuous film recording that does not have any cuts. A shot is a subset of a scene.

slug  

Blank (fill leader) or substitute footage used to fill in spaces where footage is temporarily missing, in order to maintain sync between the picture and the soundtrack.

SMPTE  

Abbreviation for Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. The standard-setting organization that established the SMPTE timecode standard for video. SMPTE timecode is the most commonly used timecode format.

source clips  

The media files you start with when you begin editing. These are the files that are captured into your computer and linked to the Cinema Tools database before editing begins.

standard definition video  

Refers to the NTSC and PAL video standards. See also high definition video , NTSC , PAL .

style sheet 

Style sheets are Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT) files that Cinema Tools uses to provide customized output lists. This includes controlling the specific types of information to include and defining the output layout and format (plain text, HTML, and so on). Several are provided by Cinema Tools, and you can create custom style sheets as needed. See also Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations (XSLT).

supers  

Short for superimposed. Overlays of images or text onto frames. For example, titles are superimposed onto frames.

sync  

Short for synchronization. When sound is in unison (synchronized) with the picture, they are said to be in sync.

synchronizer block  

A small mechanical bench device with sprocketed wheels mounted on a revolving shaft. Located between film reels mounted on shafted rewinds, it accepts one strip of film and perforated magnetic soundtrack per sprocketed wheel. Once the film and track are locked onto the wheels, they can be placed in exact mechanical sync and will maintain this sync while they are advanced forward through the synchronizer block. The synchronizer block also keeps track of elapsed footage via a mechanical feet and frame counter geared to the sprocket wheels. Also known as a sync block, gang sync, or synchronizer.

take 

A take is another version of a particular shot. In shooting a film, there may be multiple takes of each shot.

telecine 

A machine that copies the images on the original camera negative to a videotape format, often including a window burn of the film edge code. See also window burn .

telecine film speed 

The frame rate at which the film is run in telecine equipment during the transfer to video.

telecine log  

A file generated by the telecine technician during the telecine transfer. Records the key numbers of the original camera negative and the timecode of the video transfer, tracking the relationship between them. Sometimes called a FLEx file.

timecode  

A format for assigning each frame of video a unique, sequential unit of time. The format is hours: minutes: seconds: frames.

TK speed  

See telecine film speed.

window burn  

Visual timecode and keycode information superimposed onto video frames. It usually appears on a strip at the bottom or top of the frame, providing code information to the editor without obscuring any of the picture.

workprint  

A positive copy of the original camera negative, cut to provide a record and prototype of the creative edit. In traditional filmmaking, the workprint is edited first and then used by the negative cutter as a guide for cutting the original camera negative. In digital filmmaking, a workprint is usually used to verify the cut list and to create a prototype of the film to view on a big screen before conforming the negative. Sometimes called a work pix or cut pix.

XML  

Abbreviation for Extensible Markup Language. A general-purpose markup language that combines human-readable text with additional, specialized information. Because of the large variety of tools available, XML files are widely used to exchange information between applications.