What Is Sound?

All sounds are vibrations traveling through the air as sound waves. Sound waves are caused by the vibrations of objects and radiate outward from their source in all directions. A vibrating object compresses the surrounding air molecules (squeezing them closer together) and then rarefies them (pulling them farther apart). Although the fluctuations in air pressure travel outward from the object, the air molecules themselves stay in the same average position. As sound travels, it reflects off objects in its path, creating further disturbances in the surrounding air. When these changes in air pressure vibrate your eardrum, nerve signals are sent to your brain and are interpreted as sound.

Fundamentals of a Sound Wave

The simplest kind of sound wave is a sine wave. Pure sine waves rarely exist in the natural world, but they are a useful place to start because all other sounds can be broken down into combinations of sine waves. A sine wave clearly demonstrates the three fundamental characteristics of a sound wave: frequency, amplitude, and phase.

Figure. Diagram showing a sine wave.


Frequency is the rate, or number of times per second, that a sound wave cycles from positive to negative to positive again. Frequency is measured in cycles per second or hertz (Hz). Humans have a range of hearing from 20 Hz (low) to 20,000 Hz (high). Frequencies beyond this range exist, but they are inaudible to humans.


Amplitude (or intensity ) refers to the strength of a sound wave, which the human ear interprets as volume or loudness. People can detect a very wide range of volumes, from the sound of a pin dropping in a quiet room to a loud rock concert. Because the range of human hearing is so large, audio meters use a logarithmic scale (decibels) to make the units of measurement more manageable.


Phase compares the timing between two similar sound waves. If two periodic sound waves of the same frequency begin at the same time, the two waves are said to be in phase. Phase is measured in degrees from 0 to 360, where 0 degrees means both sounds are exactly in sync (in phase) and 180 degrees means both sounds are exactly opposite (out of phase). When two sounds that are in phase are added together, the combination makes an even stronger result. When two sounds that are out of phase are added together, the opposing air pressures cancel each other out, resulting in little or no sound. This is known as phase cancelation.

Phase cancelation can be a problem when mixing similar audio signals together, or when original and reflected sound waves interact in a reflective room. For example, when the left and right channels of a stereo mix are combined to create a mono mix, the signals may suffer from phase cancelation.

Figure. Diagram showing separate signals and mixed signals in phase and out of phase.

Frequency Spectrum of Sounds

With the exception of pure sine waves, sounds are made up of many different frequency components vibrating at the same time. The particular characteristics of a sound are the result of the unique combination of frequencies it contains.

Sounds contain energy in different frequency ranges, or bands. If a sound has a lot of low-frequency energy, it has a lot of bass. The 250-4000 Hz frequency band, where humans hear best, is described as midrange. High-frequency energy beyond the midrange is called treble, and this adds crispness or brilliance to a sound. The graph below shows how the sounds of different musical instruments fall within particular frequency bands.

Figure. Diagram showing the frequency ranges of different musical instruments.

Note: Different manufacturers and mixing engineers define the ranges of these frequency bands differently, so the numbers described above are approximate.

The human voice produces sounds that are mostly in the 250-4000 Hz range, which likely explains why people’s ears are also the most sensitive to this range. If the dialogue in your movie is harder to hear when you add music and sound effects, try reducing the midrange frequencies of the nondialogue tracks using an equalizer filter. Reducing the midrange creates a “sonic space” in which the dialogue can be heard more easily.

Musical sounds typically have a regular frequency, which the human ear hears as the sound’s pitch. Pitch is expressed using musical notes, such as C, E flat, and F sharp. The pitch is usually only the lowest, strongest part of the sound wave, called the fundamental frequency. Every musical sound also has higher, softer parts called overtones or harmonics, which occur at regular multiples of the fundamental frequency. The human ear doesn’t hear the harmonics as distinct pitches, but rather as the tone color (also called the timbre) of the sound, which allows the ear to distinguish one instrument or voice from another, even when both are playing the same pitch.

Figure. Diagram showing a sound's fundamental frequency, first harmonic, and second harmonic.

Musical sounds also typically have a volume envelope. Every note played on a musical instrument has a distinct curve of rising and falling volume over time. Sounds produced by some instruments, particularly drums and other percussion instruments, start at a high volume level but quickly decrease to a much lower level and die away to silence. Sounds produced by other instruments, for example, a violin or a trumpet, can be sustained at the same volume level and can be raised or lowered in volume while being sustained. This volume curve is called the sound’s envelope and acts like a signature to help the ear recognize what instrument is producing the sound.

Figure. Diagram showing a percussive volume envelope and a sustained volume envelope.